Sujet brulant !!
historique, bases, dés le début dans les années 1970 c'était explosif !!
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... 359a0.html
In 1972, Exxon7, 8 embarked on a large project using TiS2 as the positive electrode, Li metal as the negative electrode and lithium perchlorate in dioxolane as the electrolyte. TiS2 was the best intercalation compound available at the time, having a very favourable layered-type structure. As the results were published in readily available literature, this work convinced a wider audience. But in spite of the impeccable operation of the positive electrode, the system was not viable. It soon encountered the shortcomings of a Li-metal/liquid electrolyte combination — uneven (dendritic) Li growth as the metal was replated during each subsequent discharge–recharge cycle (Fig. 2a), which led to explosion hazards. Substituting Li metal for an alloy with Al solved the dendrite problem9 but, as discussed later, alloy electrodes survived only a limited number of cycles owing to extreme changes in volume during operation. In the meantime, significant advances in intercalation materials had occurred with the realization at Bell Labs that oxides, besides their early interest for the heavier chalcogenides10, 11, were giving higher capacities and voltages. Moreover, the previously held belief that only low-dimensional materials could give sufficient ion diffusion disappeared as a framework structure (V6O13) proved to function perfectly12. Later, Goodenough et al., with LixMO2 (where M is Co, Ni or Mn)13, 14, would propose the families of compounds that are still used almost exclusively in today's batteries....
Finally, capitalizing on earlier findings20, 21, the discovery of the highly reversible, low-voltage Li intercalation–deintercalation process in carbonaceous material22 (providing that carefully selected electrolytes are used), led to the creation of the C/LiCoO2 rocking-chair cell commercialized by Sony Corporation in June 1991 (ref. 23). This type of Li-ion cell, having a potential exceeding 3.6 V (three times that of alkaline systems) and gravimetric energy densities as high as 120–150 W h kg-1 (two to three times those of usual Ni–Cd batteries), is found in most of today's high-performance portable electronic devices.
The second approach24 involved replacing the liquid electrolyte by a dry polymer electrolyte (Fig. 3a), leading to the so-called Li solid polymer electrolyte (Li-SPE) batteries. But this technology is restricted to large systems (electric traction or backup power) and not to portable devices, as it requires temperatures up to 80 °C. Shortly after this, several groups tried to develop a Li hybrid polymer electrolyte (Li-HPE) battery25, hoping to benefit from the advantages of polymer electrolyte technology without the hazards associated with the use of Li metal. 'Hybrid' meant that the electrolyte included three components: a polymer matrix (Fig. 3b) swollen with liquid solvent and a salt. Companies such as Valence and Danionics were involved in developing these polymer batteries, but HPE systems never materialized at the industrial scale because Li-metal dendrites were still a safety issue.
With the aim of combining the recent commercial success enjoyed by liquid Li-ion batteries with the manufacturing advantages presented by the polymer technology, Bellcore researchers introduced polymeric electrolytes in a liquid Li-ion system26. They developed the first reliable and practical rechargeable Li-ion HPE battery, called plastic Li ion (PLiON), which differs considerably from the usual coin-, cylindrical- or prismatic-type cell configurations (Fig. 4). Such a thin-film battery technology, which offers shape versatility, flexibility and lightness, has been developed commercially since 1999, and has many potential advantages in the continuing trend towards electronic miniaturization. Finally, the 'next generation' of bonded liquid-electrolyte Li-ion cells, derived from the plastic Li-ion concept, are beginning to enter the market place. Confusingly called Li-ion polymer batteries, these new cells use a gel-coated, microporous poly-olefin separator bonded to the electrodes (also gel-laden), rather than the P(VDF-HFP)-based membrane (that is, a copolymer of vinylidene difluoride with hexafluoropropylene) used in the plastic Li-ion cells.
http://www.nouvelles.umontreal.ca/reche ... teurs.html
http://www.futura-sciences.com/fr/news/ ... ble_15268/
http://newenergyandfuel.com/http:/newen ... -part-one/
http://newenergyandfuel.com/http:/newen ... -part-two/
ca explose toujours !!
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2010 ... ss-office/
30ans après le problème est très mal résolu !!
http://green.autoblog.com/2010/05/20/re ... t-chargin/
http://laserpointerforums.com/f53/bewar ... 54974.html